Archive for the ‘Hollywood Forever Cemetery’ Category

Mina Crolius Gleason, Mother of actor James Gleason

Sunday, May 10th, 2015

HOLLYWOOD FOREVER CEMETERY

Mina Crolius Gleason, Mother of actor James Gleason

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MINA CROLIUS GLEASON

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By Allan R. Ellenberger

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On this Mother’s Day we remember Mina Crolius Gleason, the mother of playwright and actor, James Gleason.

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Born Arabella Crolius on June 9, 1858, in Boston, her family had been in the theater for generations. She was on the stage as a child, appearing with her four brothers and sisters at the historic Castle Square Stock Company Theater.

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Following her marriage to William Lawrence Gleason, she went on tour with him in Charles Frohman’s road shows. Later, the couple appeared in stock at Oakland and at Elitch’s Gardens in Denver.

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Her son, James Gleason, was one of the most successful American playwrights and actors, in stage and films. Gleason made an impression in roles in such films as Meet John Doe, Here Comes Mr. Jordan and The Bishop’s Wife. He made his debut on the stage as a 4-months-old baby carried in his mother’s arms.

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In April, 1927, Gleason wrote a part in The Shannons of Broadway especially for his mother, but she fractured a hip while stepping down from a train at Gallup, New Mexico. She was unable to act in the play, although her son postponed the production on her account.

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Now an invalid, Mina was confined to her home at 117 North Maple Drive in Beverly Hills. On June 26, 1931, she was rushed to the Osteopathic Hospital and it was there she died the following day from heart disease. She was 73.

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Mina Gleason’s death certificate

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Mina’s funeral was held at the Church of the Good Shepherd in Beverly Hills with interment, along with her husband’s ashes, at Hollywood Cemetery (Section 8, in the vicinity of John Huston).

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Presentacion Urquidez Lopez; her family was the first in Hollywood

Sunday, February 15th, 2015

HOLLYWOOD FOREVER CEMETERY

Presentacion Urquidez Lopez; her family was the first in Hollywood

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By Allan R. Ellenberger

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Born in 1842, Presentacion Urquidez was the fifth child of Don Tomas Urquidez and his third wife, Ramona Candida Vejar. Don Urquidez, who was born in Santo Tomas Mission, Lower California, arrived in Los Angeles at the age of twenty-five. Urquidez was the first Spanish resident of what would eventually be known as Hollywood, and his cattle and horses roamed far over the southern slopes of the Cahuenga Valley. Annually he celebrated the fiesta of “The Sign of the Cross,” with its praying, dancing, horse racing, and barbecue with the pure native wines and brandies.

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In 1853 Don Urquidez built the first house in what would be Hollywood (see photo above), an adobe and wood building that had its roof insulated with brea brought from the nearby tar pits. It was located in an old Native American graveyard on the northwest corner of Franklin and Sycamore Avenues.

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On October 21, 1861, Presentacion married Jose Claudio Tranquilino Lopez at the Plaza Church in downtown Los Angeles. Afterward, festivities lasting eight days were held at their famous adobe in Hollywood.

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Through various causes, the family lost its vast estates. Old and blind, Don Tomas returned from the celebration of the Eve of St. John at the San Gabriel Mission to find himself disposed of his beloved adobe. Later their home was bought by General Harrison Gray Otis, founder of the Los Angeles Times and was renamed The Outpost.

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Presentacion would bear her husband Jose at least five children, and Carmen Avenue in Hollywood was named after one of them. In her old age, Presentacion remembered General John C. Fremont and much of the local history of the time and was one of the few remaining representatives of the time when most of this section was owned by the Spanish.

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The evening before her death on September 8, 1908, Presentacion entertained a group of old friends until late in the morning, smoking her favorite cigarettes and talking about old times. She was weak and feeble, and after the last friend had gone, called for a final cigarette and was surprised that she was too weak to inhale the fumes. Sinking back on her couch, she turned her glance upward, gave a loud happy laugh and died with a smile on her lips. Two sons and a daughter and a large number of grandchildren survived her.

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At the end of her life, she claimed to not know her real age which

probably explains the wrong date on her tombstone.

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Before her burial in Hollywood Cemetery, the funeral was held at the Blessed Sacrament Church on the southeast corner of Prospect Avenue (now Hollywood Boulevard) and Cherokee Avenue. Her tombstone reads, “En Paz Descanse” or “Rest in Peace.” Her grave is located in the northeast corner of the cemetery (where the older graves are) and about two rows from the wall.

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June Mathis: The Woman Who Discovered Valentino

Friday, December 5th, 2014

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By Allan R. Ellenberger

June Mathis, a short, thickset, rather plain woman with frizzy hair, became one of Hollywood’s most influential women during the silent era. An accomplished screenwriter, casting director and film editor, Mathis was the only female executive at Metro Studios, and at one time the highest paid film executive in Hollywood.

Born June Beulah Hughes in Leadville, Colorado on June 30, 1889, Mathis was the only child of Phillip and Virginia Hughes. Although available biographical records usually give her year of birth as 1892, census records appear to confirm the 1889 date. Her parents divorced when she was seven and while much of her childhood is vague, at some point her mother met and married William D. Mathis, a recent widower with three children. Ultimately she would take her step-father’s name.

Mathis’ first public incarnation was as a child actor in vaudeville and on Broadway. Her stage credits include the hit play, The Fascinating Widow with the famed female impersonator, Julian Eltinge. For thirteen years Mathis toured in numerous plays and vaudeville shows. In 1914, she moved to New York and took a writing course and entered a scriptwriting contest. This brought her several offers to write scenarios until Metro Studios hired her in 1918. At Metro, she quickly worked her way up to becoming chief of the studio’s script department. Her scripts incorporated a wide range of films including An Eye for an Eye (1918), Hearts Are Trumps (1920) and Polly with a Past (1920). ..

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THE FOUR HORSEMEN OF THE APOCALYPSE

When Metro president Richard Rowland bought the rights to the popular war novel, The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse, Mathis was placed in charge. It was through her influence that her friend and fledgling film director, Rex Ingram was hired as the film’s director. The film and the casting of Rudolph Valentino in the role of Julio, established both of their careers. Mathis picked Valentino for the role of Julio after seeing him in a small role in The Eyes of Youth (1919).

Until Mathis cast Valentino in The Four Horsemen, he was relegated to mostly bit parts and walk-ons. Several people have taken credit for Valentino’s success but it was this bit of casting that launched the Latin Lover’s career. At Metro, and later Paramount studios, Mathis was responsible for a string of Rudolph Valentino films including Blood and Sand (1922) and The Young Rajah (1922).

Mathis and Valentino maintained a very close relationship – some even suggested that they may have been romantically involved, but this is unlikely. In fact, actress Nita Naldi said that Mathis mothered Valentino and that they held each other in high regards. When Mathis’ version of the script for the ill-fated The Hooded Falcon failed to impress either Valentino or his wife, Natacha Rambova, Mathis ended their relationship.

BEN-HUR 

After negotiations with producers of the Ben-Hur stage play, Samuel Goldwyn bought the screen rights to General Lew Wallace’s religious novel. Mathis, who had previously been with Metro and Lasky, was now Goldwyn’s head scenarist and was given sovereign control. Not only would Mathis adapt the screenplay, she was in charge of production and her first executive decision was to make the film in Italy. After a nationwide search it was decided to go with Mathis choice for Ben-Hur, George Walsh and her pick for director, Charles Brabin. Neither choice, however, was popular with the public nor with many in the film industry, but this proved how powerful Mathis was at the time.

Once the film company arrived in Rome, the production quickly began to deteriorate. Labor disputes delayed the building of many of the sets; Italian labor was inexpensive, but slow. Not only were the sets and costumes not ready, but the actors sat around or took advantage and made small tours of Europe. To make matters worse, Mathis was told to not interfere with Brabin on the set. Originally she believed that she was to supervise the production, but quickly learned that things were changing; Brabin would only allow her to approve or reject changes to the script.

In the meantime, nothing on the set seemed to go right. The sets cost a fortune but still looked cheap. The script wasn’t completed, and a lot of time and money was being wasted. The moral of the entire company was at an all-time low, and it appeared that Ben-Hur would be the biggest fiasco that Hollywood had ever seen.

During all of this, Metro, Goldwyn, and producer Louis B. Mayer were making plans to merge their studios. The first point of order for the new studio, now known as Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, was to try and save the fast-sinking Ben-Hur. Mayer, who was appointed as the head of the studio, told MGM’s president, Marcus Loew, that he would only take the job if June Mathis, Charles Brabin and George Walsh were removed. They also insisted that the script be rewritten. These demands meant that they would have to start from the beginning.

Mayer’s replacement for Brabin was director Fred Niblo, who felt the assembled cast was the most uninteresting and colorless he had seen and directly blamed Mathis. Walsh was replaced with Ramon Novarro and Mathis was unceremoniously fired and replaced by scenarists Bess Meredyth and Carey Wilson.

In statements to the press, Mathis held Charles Brabin responsible for the problems on Ben-Hur. She insisted that control of the picture was taken away from her by Brabin and she could no longer associate herself with the film.

During the few months that she was in Rome, Mathis met and fell in love with Sylvano Balboni, an Italian cameraman hired to work on the film. Mathis returned to Hollywood in August 1924 with Balboni in-tow, and married him the following December. Regardless of what transpired on Ben-Hur, Mathis continued to work. Shortly after returning from Rome she signed with First National where she scripted several Colleen Moore films including Sally (1925), The Desert Flower (1925) and Irene (1926). ..

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.REUNION WITH VALENTINO 

When Rudolph Valentino’s last film, The Son of the Sheik (1926) premiered in Los Angeles, Mathis was there and the two had a heartfelt reunion. It was only a few months later that Valentino died suddenly and Mathis offered her own crypt at Hollywood Cemetery as a temporary resting place for the dead film idol.

Over the following year, Mathis developed health problems, including high blood pressure and was placed on a restricted diet by her doctors. That summer, she was in New York with her grandmother, Emily Hawks. On the evening of July 26, 1927, disregarding her doctor’s orders, she had a heavy meal before taking her grandmother to the 48th Street Theatre to watch Blanche Yurka perform in The Squall. In the play’s final act, Mathis suddenly cried out, “Oh, mother, I’m dying,” and threw her arms around her grandmother while sobbing convulsively.

Attendants ran to Mathis seat and carried her outside to the theater alley alongside the playhouse and laid her on the concrete road. A physician that was in the audience examined her and announced that she was dead. Her grandmother was inconsolable, pleading with her to speak while Mathis’ body lay in the alley waiting for the medical examiner to arrive.

The following week back in Hollywood, Valentino’s body was moved to the neighboring crypt to make room for Mathis. They lay next to each other in eternity to this day. .

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THE FUTURE OF WOMEN IN FILM 

While it’s true that only hard-core film enthusiasts recognize June Mathis’ name today, she hasn’t been totally ignored. For instance, you cannot mention Rudolph Valentino, director Rex Ingram or such film classics as The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse without discussing Mathis’ and her contributions to film history?

Without a doubt there have been a number of women among Mathis’ contemporaries who yielded various levels of power. These would include writers Frances Marion, Bess Meredyth and Anita Loos and of course directors Lois Weber and Dorothy Arzner, among others.

For some reason, shortly after the advent of sound, women seemed to lose much of their influence that they achieved during the silent era. The only women that seemed to wield any power were gossip columnist Hedda Hopper and Louella Parsons, who, while not directly running a studio, could definitely influence the powers-that-be.

Today it’s not unusual to see a woman in a position of authority or even running a studio. Examples over the years have included Amy Pascal, Chairman of Sony Pictures; Anne Sweeney, president of Disney-ABC Television; Gail Berman, president of Paramount Pictures; Stacey Snider, co-chairman and CEO of DreamWorks SKG; Nina Tassler, president of CBS Entertainment; Dana Walden, President of 20th Century Fox Television, and of course, there’s media mogul, Oprah Winfrey. June Mathis would be proud.

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Hollywood Forever Cemetery presents Dia de los Muertos

Tuesday, October 28th, 2014

HOLLYWOOD FOREVER CEMETERY

Hollywood Forever Cemetery presents Dia de los Muertos

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Robert Nudelman and Marvin Paige markers at Hollywood Forever

Saturday, October 18th, 2014

HOLLYWOOD FOREVER CEMETERY

The graves of preservationist Robert Nudelman, and casting agent, Marvin Paige now marked at Hollywood Forever Cemetery

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Recently, within the last few weeks, the graves of two of Hollywood’s behind-the-scenes people have been marked.

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First, Robert Nudelman, a leading preservationist who helped spearhead Hollywood’s rebirth as he campaigned over three decades to save and restore such landmarks as the El Capitan Theatre and the Cinerama Dome, now has a marker after six years. He was 52 years old when he died in 2008.

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“There probably isn’t a single historic building or development project in Hollywood that Mr. Nudelman didn’t have a part in,” Fran Offenhauser, vice president of Hollywood Heritage said at the time. He was “the conscience of Hollywood,” Offenhauser added. “He really made the village happen in Hollywood, and it’s going to take a village to fill the gap he left. . . . He was really the lightning rod who woke up an area.”

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Marvin Paige, who cast movies including Star Trek: The Motion Picture, two Woody Allen films and shows including General Hospital, worked as a celebrity handler and owned an extensive Hollywood archive, died of injuries sustained in a car crash in Laurel Canyon in October 2013. He was in his 80s.

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Paige spent several decades as a casting director, then reinvented himself in later years as a keeper of Hollywood history who could always find the right person to appear at a tribute or showbiz celebration, such as the annual Cinecon events. “He was essential in targeting the right celebrities for the right event,” said publicist Edward Lozzi.

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Page Peters, Hollywood Cemetery’s first celebrity resident

Wednesday, January 29th, 2014

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By Allan R. Ellenberger

Page Peters was born in Louisville, Kentucky and educated at the Western Military Academy. Peters was one of Hollywood’s sexiest and most well liked actors at the time of his popularity around 1914 to 1916. He is not related to actor, House Peters. Among his more important roles in films were in Pasquale (1916) with George Beban; Davy Crockett (1916), The Gentleman from Indiana (1915), and Ben Blair (1916), with Dustin Farnum, An International Marriage (1916), with Rita Jolivet; He Fell in Love With His Wife (1916), with Florence Rockwell, and Madame La Presidente (1916) with Anna Held.

On June 26, 1916, Peters and a party of friends drove down to Hermosa Beach from Los Angeles for a day’s outing at the home of a mutual friend, Harry Graves, at Fourth Street and Strand. Early in the morning, Peters and several of the house guests decided to take a dip in the Pacific ocean. Peters and a female friend ventured out beyond the others where,  apparently he was seized with a cramp. The young woman, a Miss Graves, tried to assist him to keep afloat and screamed for help, but it came too late. His body was found about one-hundred feet from the shore by some of the searchers in a motor boat. A pulmotor was brought down from Redondo Beach and men worked on the stricken actor for two hours in a vain effort to restore his life.

The verdict of the medical examiner was that Page Peters, who was 27 years old, and very strong, died of heart failure rather than drowning.

Peters funeral was held at Hollywood Cemetery a few days later on a day, which coincidentally was three years to the day that he first started working in films. The pallbearers were all members of show business and among the six were Al Christie, Horace Davey, Ray Meyers, and Raymond Russell, who worked with him in his first picture. At the request of his parents, the funeral was filmed under the direction of Al Christie, Peter’s first director and Anton Nadge, who photographed his first, filmed the funeral, using the same camera.

Page Peters is possibly the first actor to be buried at Hollywood Cemetery. His grave, near the eastern wall across from the Cathedral Mausoleum, is unmarked. .

The unmarked grave of actor Page Peters is in the general vicinity noted above, Section 9, Lot 428.

 

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The Revenge of Ella Barrow

Sunday, July 14th, 2013

HOLLYWOOD FOREVER CEMETERY

The revenge of Ella Barrow

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The Cahuenga Pass as it looked in 1882

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By Allan R. Ellenberger

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Andrew Hay was an early settler of the Cahuenga Valley, which is now known around the world as Hollywood.  Hay was born on January 2, 1846 in London, Canada but later moved to Saginaw, Michigan, where he successfully engaged in the lumber business. In 1873 he married Lizzie Thurbis Sutherland, the daughter of J. G. Sutherland, one of Utah’s best known jurists at the time. In 1882 the Hays moved to Southern California and settled in the Cahuenga Valley, where he bought 160 acres between Sunset and Santa Monica Boulevards, west of Fairfax, and devoted it to growing vegetables which he raised with the help of Chinese immigrants. Later he sub divided the area and Havenhurst Avenue in West Hollywood is reportedly named for him.

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Hay retained the area north of Hollywood Boulevard between Sycamore and Fuller Avenues, extending north in the floor of Outpost Canyon. He made his ranch at the northern end of Camino Palmero Street and erected a mission gateway at the entrance (a revised version of that gate still stands there). Within a few years, the Hays’ started a family with the births of Bessie (1874), Chapie (1876), Edna (1878), Jamie (1880) and Hal (1882). In 1883, with four small children (Jamie died in 1881) to raise, the Hays hired seventeen year-old Ella Barrow to assist Lizzie with her domestic duties.

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Ella Barrow, the daughter of Ireby Barrow and his wife Martha, was described as having a dark complexion, buxom, not particularly preprocessing, but with a bright face and eye. Ella was the fifth born of what would eventually be fifteen Barrow children. The Barrow’s had moved from Illinois to California in 1880 and purchased land with boundaries of Beverly Boulevard on the south, Rosewood Avenue on the north, Vermont Avenue on the east and Normandie on the west.

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The Ireby Barrow farm circa 1894 (USC)

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Ella was working for the Hay’s for just a little time when on Wednesday, March 7, 1883, she accompanied him into town to do some shopping. Once the errands were completed, Hay loitered about for some time, until almost dusk, and then they began for home. As they passed Senator Cornelius Cole’s home near Santa Monica and Lodi, Hay turned the carriage right and continued up Vine Street and told Ella he was taking a short cut home. They eventually made their way to the entrance to the Cahuenga Pass, stopping at a ravine or gully where he made the excuse that there was something wrong with one of the horse’s bridles. He stopped the team and got out to fix it. When he returned to the wagon, it was on Ella’s blind side, and walking to the front, he grabbed her and molested her. Ella resisted as he pulled her off the wagon and dragged her onto the ground and covered her face with a white cloth. Within seconds she was subdued and couldn’t resist his advances though she was cognizant of what was happening. There along the side of the road, he raped her. When he finished, he assisted her into the wagon and told her not to say anything about what happened. If she did, it would ruin her reputation.

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Above is the Cahuenga Pass as it looked in 1883 which is near where Andrew Hay raped Ella Barrow

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Ella stayed with the Hays family until the following Sunday morning, having been ill all the time from the effects of whatever drug he gave her. When she finally went home, she told her parents what Hay had done. The following day, Ella and her father went into town to consult a lawyer about charging Hay with rape. Arrangements were made, but the matter was delayed in order to obtain additional evidence. Barrow took Ella to a physician, who from hearing her symptoms, said that the drug was probably ether. The doctor gave her different anesthetics to smell, and she selected ether as the one more resembling the smell.

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The case was laid before the District Attorney and they were going take some action when Ella became uneasy about the long delay, as it seemed to her, and decided to take the matter into her own hands. Unknown to her father, Ella talked with her older brother, Thomas, who had a pistol; a small, five-chambered, 32-calibre type. Having worked for Hay, Ella was familiar with his routine and knew that he would be at the post office the next morning to pick up his mail. In the morning, Thomas drove her into town and waited as Ella, dressed in a long cloak which concealed the loaded gun, walked up the steps and into the post office.

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As Ella stood at the entrance, her eyes scanned the lobby looking for the man that raped her. Finally, at a shelf along the wall, she saw Andrew Hay reading a post card. Standing next to him was W.H. Dyer and several other men. Suddenly, the lobby rang out with the sound of gunfire. At first, Dyer thought he was being shot at, from the proximity of the shooter and the powder burning his face. He looked up and saw Ella walking to the door. Dyer screamed at her and Ella, turning around, saw that Hay was not harmed (the bullet did graze his scalp but nothing else), but was crouching on the floor with his back toward her. She coolly returned to her original position and aimed the gun squarely at his back and pulled the trigger a second time. Never having fired a gun before, the motion of pulling the trigger threw the muzzle of the pistol up, and instead of entering Hay’s back, the ball struck the wall some ten feet away, and glancing upward struck the ceiling and fell to the floor.

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It was then that Hay realized that he was the object of the attack and jumped up to get out of the way, but Ella began chasing after him through the lobby. Dyer tried to stop her, and grasped her by her cloak, but she escaped, leaving it in his hands. Another man standing nearby joined in the pursuit and was able to grab her and the pistol, holding her for the police who took her into custody. As she was being taken away, the only remorse she expressed was at her failure to kill Andrew Hay. She declared to everyone that she would still carry out her plans.

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Meanwhile, Hay went to the doctor who dressed the wound which was about an inch in length on the back of his head. The bullet entered his hat, a soft one, under the rim just at the very inner edge, tore through it upward, went through the lower edge of the band, then out at the top.

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When he was asked, Hay said that he had no idea why he was attacked or who the young lady was that pulled the trigger, even though a Los Angeles Times reporter told him her name was Ella Barrow. However, he asked to be excused so he could consult a lawyer but promised the reporter he would meet with him later. At the subsequent interview in his lawyer’s office, he admitted that he knew the girl, that she had worked for him but denied her accusations were true, going so far as to say he was being framed. “He was perfectly cool over the matter,” the reporter wrote, “treating it very lightly, as if it was but of little consequence.”  Taking off his hat, he showed the reporter the wound. “That was a pretty close call, wasn’t it?”  

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That afternoon, Ella appeared in court and agreed to bail in the sum of $500, which was paid by two family friends. Hay refused to file a complaint against Ella, which the press assumed that he was not willing that the case should come before the courts, and gave strength to Ella’s story.

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Three days later, Ella was arraigned before Justice Morgan for the charge of “assault to murder.” The courtroom was packed so full of spectators that it was impossible to either enter or leave. Even the passage-way and hall outside was densely packed. Ella was accompanied by several family members and made a good impression on the court. Hay’s attorneys would not allow him to answer any leading questions on the ground that he would incriminate himself. After the proceedings, a warrant was issued for Hay’s arrest but he was able to slip out of the crowded courtroom before he could be taken into custody. The constable, armed with the warrant, caught up with him just before he reached his ranch and was brought back to the city. The judge hastily convened his Court, read the complaint to Hay, and fixed his bail at $3,000 which he was unable to pay because it was so late in the day.

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On March 26, Ella was arraigned before Judge Sepulveda. She pled guilty and was fined $25, which according to the court, showed honesty of purpose on her part. The case against her was closed.

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Andrew Hay was not as fortunate. The Hay rape case, as it became known, was reported across the country. What makes it really remarkable is that the case was tried four times, with each trial ending in a hung jury. Of the first jury, two were for acquittal; of the second jury, one voted for acquittal; the third jury voted for conviction, but the verdict was thrown out on affidavit of the clerk that the prisoner had not been arraigned to plead, though the records show that he had been. Of the last and fourth jury, in June 1885, two were for acquittal. After that the District Attorney decided not to try the case again and Hay was set free.

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The following year, on October 16, 1886, Ella Barrow married Everett W. Thaxter in New York and they had four children, Earl, Walter, Ralph and Maggie.

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In March 1887, tragedy came to Andrew Hay and his wife, when all four of their children died from small pox within a two week period. In 1890 the Hays had another son, Francis and five years later they had a daughter, Elizabeth. On September 13, 1903, Andrew Hay died at his residence at 1523 N. Cambria Street. At Hollywood Cemetery a monument was built (Griffith Lawn) with a robed woman standing under a pergola. The bodies of his five children, who died fifteen years earlier, were reburied in the new family plot at Hollywood. Oddly, Hay’s grave stone was marked only with “Father” and his birth and death dates and was installed upside down (during a recent restoration the marker was turned around).

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In 1994, during the Northridge Earthquake, the pergola collapsed and was never restored. The hands of the statue were also broken off (SEE BELOW).

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After twenty-six years of marriage, in 1912, Everett Thaxter filed for divorce from Ella in Reno, Nevada on charges of cruelty. Everett found he could not stand married life any longer, claiming that Ella made him attend church several times on Sunday and when he got home she varied the treatment by calling him un-Christian names. She also hurt his back by kicking him.

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Several members of the Ireby Barrow family are also buried at Hollywood Forever. In fact their family plot is approximately 100 feet from the Hay monument in a direct line south and across the road in the Chandler Gardens (Section 12). SEE BELOW

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Ella Barrow Thaxter never remarried and died on August 17, 1955. Ella was not buried at Hollywood Forever with the family and it’s not known where she was placed.

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Peggy Shannon at Hollywood Forever

Wednesday, January 16th, 2013

HOLLYWOOD FOREVER CEMETERY

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By Allan R. Ellenberger

 

On Broadway, she was a Ziegfeld Follies girl and successful ingénue, enough so to have Hollywood take notice.  Once considered the successor to Clara Bow, the titian-haired Peggy Shannon, a pretty actress whose appearances in major roles gave her the potential for stardom, ended her life in heartbreaking loneliness.

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Peggy Shannon was born Winona Sammon on January 10, 1910 in Pine Bluff, Arkansas. As a child, her interest in music led her to study the piano and violin. She hoped to be a teacher until Madge Evans came to Pine Bluff on a tour promoting her line of hats. “I was only about 10 and knew then I wanted to be in show business,” Peggy recalled.

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In 1924, her mother Nancy took her and her sister Carole to visit their aunt in New York, who happened to live in the same building as Goldie Glough, the secretary of Florenz Ziegfeld, who was preparing a new Follies show. Goldie told Will Page, a press agent for Ziegfeld, about Peggy’s beauty and he had her pose for publicity pictures with Ziegfeld.

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“It was just a stunt, but I didn’t know it then,” Peggy later recalled. “They took me to Ziegfeld’s New Amsterdam offices and photographed me, curls, silk gingham dress and all, with Mr. Wayburn and Mr. Ziegfeld. The next day newspapers carried the story form Ziegfeld’s office that he had signed an Arkansas newcomer. They said I could be in the chorus for a while, more to justify their story than became they wanted me.”

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She appeared in The Ziegfeld Follies of 1924, along with Will Rogers, Lupino Lane and Mary Nolan (also buried at Hollywood Forever). After one season, Earl Carroll hired her for his Vanities of 1925. She kept busy during this time, modeling during the day, then after appearing in the Vanities she joined the floor shows at Texas Guinan’s.

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In 1926 Peggy married actor Alan Davis. The following year Earl Carroll put her in the ingénue lead in What Anne Brought Home opposite William Hanly and Mayo Methot. For the next three years she appeared in comedic roles for William Brady, a noted producer who planned to make her a star.

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That would all change when B.P. Schulberg, the head of production at Paramount saw her in Napi on Broadway and signed her to a contract. It was during this time that Paramount was recruiting many Broadway actors for film, including Sylvia Sidney, Claudette Colbert and Miriam Hopkins.

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Within four days of her arrival in Hollywood, Clara Bow had her second nervous breakdown. Peggy was summoned into Schulberg’s office and was told she would replace Bow in her next picture, The Secret Call (1931) opposite Richard Arlen. “The interview was very brief,” Peggy said of her meeting with Schulberg. “He sent me away telling me I had many things to do as production started the next morning.”

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She read the script and was impressed by it and somewhat staggered by the realization that the role was the most important in the film, and the longest. That meant learning hundreds of speeches. But she discovered that films were different from the stage. “I didn’t have to learn the entire role at one time,” she said. “I could study it every night and keep ahead of production.”

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Peggy admitted that the assignment frightened her. “Frankly, I was scared,” she said. “I expected to be taken out of the cast any minute. I couldn’t believe that such a wonderful break had come to me. I kept thinking, ‘That’s some other girl with the same name. It really can’t be me. And if it is me, I’d better keep my enthusiasm under control.’”

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Paramount’s advertisement for The Secret Call called Peggy “The new Clara Bow,” “The successor of the ‘It’ girl,” “Greatest find of the year” and “Clara Bow’s redheaded rival.” The film did well at the box-office however the reviews were lukewarm. The New York Times reported that Peggy would “be remembered as the young lady who succeeded Clara Bow, when that actress became indisposed. Miss Shannon is attractive, but The Secret Call does not present many situations calling for much more than a gentle stroll through its various scenes.”

.

Peggy made four more films for Paramount and a few independent films, including False Faces (1932) in which she had some good scenes with Lowell Sherman. Leaving Paramount, she signed a contract with Fox in February 1932 and appeared as a nightclub singer in The Painted Woman (1932), opposite Spencer Tracy. She was billed as Tracy’s first romantic lead. The New York Sun reported that Peggy was “improving” but Fox executives disagreed and dropped her option.

.

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She worked as an independent in such films as Girl Missing (1933), directed by Robert Florey and Turn Back the Clock (1933) with Lee Tracy. Peggy’s career was beginning to lag and second rate films followed such as Fury of the Jungle (1933), The Back Page (1934) and The Fighting Lady (1935).

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In late 1934, Peggy decided to return to Broadway in Page Miss Glory with newcomer, James Stewart. “James Stewart and Peggy Shannon are amusing as one of the bums and his fiancée,” wrote the New York Evening Post.

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Then it was back to Hollywood and Universal where Lowell Sherman directed her in the lavish production of Night Life of the Gods (1935). Next it was off to Warner Brothers in the Perry Mason who-done-it, The Case of the Lucky Legs (1935). Still not happy, Peggy returned once again to the stage to do The Light Behind the Shadow. Unfortunately Peggy was replaced early in production, reportedly due to a tooth infection but rumors were that it was due to her drinking, a habit she was quickly developing.

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After another failure on Broadway, Peggy reported to Republic for a film with Marian Marsh. Then it was Girls on Probation (1938) for Warner Brothers. The film co-starred Ronald Reagan and was notable as Susan Hayward’s first film.

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In mid-1938, Peggy and a female companion were involved in a car accident with another driver receiving lacerations on her nose and cuts on her legs. It was rumored that alcohol was involved. Friends in the business tried to help giving her small roles but in some cases her drinking would get in the way. One of her last films was Café Hostess (1940) for Columbia.

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In 1940, Peggy decided to end her fourteen year marriage to Alan Davis. She declared that he struck her on one occasion at the home of actress Wynne Gibson, who testified for her friend that he struck her “over something very inconsequential.” She added that because of her husband’s disinclination to work she had to support him as well as herself during their marriage. “He was just lazy—he played all the time,” she told the judge.

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Several months later, in October 1940, Peggy married cameraman, Albert “Al” Roberts in Mexico. They set up housekeeping at 4318 Irvine Street in North Hollywood, along with their German Sheppard, Spec. By now, Peggy was forgotten by the studios and seldom received offers, causing her to drink even more.

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In early May 1941, Roberts and his friend Elmer Fryer left for a few days on a fishing trip. When they returned on Sunday, May 11, Roberts found Peggy slumped dead across the kitchen table with her head on her arms; she was barefoot and clad in a sun suit. A cigarette, burned to the tip of her fingers, was in her right hand. Three glasses and a soft-drink bottle found in the sink were turned over to the Coroner to check for traces of poison. Peggy Shannon was 31. She was laid to rest at Hollywood Cemetery a few days later without much fanfare.

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Roberts was devastated by Peggy’s death. He was afraid that someone might think he had something to do with her death. In a conversation with Detective William Burris, Roberts said, “Bill, you’ve got something on your mind. You don’t suspect me of Peggy’s death do you?” Burris assured him that was not the case and he was merely awaiting the report of the autopsy.

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“Well, Bill,” Roberts told him, “if you have anything on your mind, get it off, because you won’t see me again.” Burris asked what he meant and Roberts told him that he was going to commit suicide. “I told him not to be like that,” Burris said, “that he had had one too many.”

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Three weeks after Peggy’s death, in the early morning hours of Memorial Day, May 30, 1941, Roberts took Spec to visit Peggy’s grave at Hollywood Cemetery. Afterward he returned to his home on Irvine Street and wrote three notes: one to ‘those concerned’ and two to his sister Phoebe, who lived in Glendale.

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At about dawn he called his sister and said he was going to kill himself. “Al, don’t do it,” she screamed into the phone. Suddenly she heard a shot and then, the barking of the dog. When police reached the house, Roberts was dead. A rifle was found near the body. In one hand he still grasped the telephone receiver. His body rested on the same chair where he had found Peggy’s body; like her, his head had fallen forward on the table. Two empty liquor bottles and two soft drink bottles were on the table. Nearby Spec lay whimpering.

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This home, at 4318 Irvine Street in Valley Village (formerly North Hollywood), is where

actress Peggy Shannon died and her husband, Albert Roberts committed suicide.

(PLEASE NOTE: This is private property. Please DO NOT disturb the residents)

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In his note Roberts wrote:

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“It happens that I am very much in love with my wife, Peggy Shannon. In this spot she passed away. So in reverence to her you will find me in the same spot. No one will ever understand, as it should be. Why don’t you all try a little bit harder—it wouldn’t hurt, I can truthfully say for both of us. Adios amigos. Al Roberts.”

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In a note to his sister, he expressed bitterness against those who he said, had feigned fondness for his wife during her lifetime. Although he doesn’t name them, it sounds like he could be referring to family members:

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“To Phoebe. If you have to ship the stuff to China do it. They can never prove what I have done with it. Spec and I went out to the cemetery around 1 a.m. They talk so much about her flowers for Memorial Day. Well, they have never been near the grave. Mrs. Ross and I put on fresh flowers as much as we could, but them dirty leeches, they wouldn’t take her a pansy but they would take her clothes and say they love her more than life. But you stress that, honey. You know how Peg supported them. Any denials just ask them to prove how they lived all these years. Al.”

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In a second note to his sister, Roberts expressed concern for his dog, Spec.

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“You take Spec,” he wrote, “and ship him to Johnny. If you don’t I will never forgive you. I promised him that. All five have said they could not be bothered with him. I know Johnny and he will be great pals. Peggy has said so time and again. So, please, take him, ‘our child’ and send him on. He certainly is entitled to that. With love Al. P.S. Hey, bury me in my gray suit. Al.”

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The following day, the coroner released the results from Peggy’s autopsy. Her death was apparently caused by a combination of low vitality, run-down condition and a heart attack. “A chemical analysis has not yet been completed by the Coroner,” a police representative said, “but examination so far shows no traces of poison or any bruises or marks.”

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Ironically, Albert Roberts’s body was not laid next to Peggy’s, but was buried at Forest Lawn Cemetery in Glendale. Whether it was the decision of his family or Peggy’s to not have them be together, is not known.

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A few weeks after Peggy’s death, her mother hired  private detectives and attorneys to investigate deeper into her daughter’s death. Nothing apparently came of their search.

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Peggy Shannon’s grave at Hollywood Forever is near the southern border of Section 5 in plot 31, grave 4. Her pink tombstone is inscribed “That Red-Headed Girl, Peggy Shannon.” Her mother and sister are buried nearby.

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 …

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Harold H. Sayre at Hollywood Forever

Tuesday, June 12th, 2012

HOLLYWOOD FOREVER CEMETERY

Harold H. Sayre; no desire but to serve

 

 

 

The following was edited from the book, Memorial Volume of the American Field Service in France, “Friends of France” 1914—1917, published in 1921 by James William Davenport Seymour.

 

 

Lieutenant Harold Holden Sayre possessed in no small degree the finest qualities of young American manhood. Clean-cut and manly are perhaps the adjectives which best describe his personality, and underneath an attractive exterior was a sturdy would upheld by the highest of principles. As one of intimate friends has said: “He had principles and stuck to them regardless of all and I loved him for his straightforward ways.”

 

Harold Sayre was born on February 7, 1895, in Hutchinson, Minnesota, the son of A. Judson and Harriet H. Sayre. Sayre lived in Harvey, North Dakota; Calgary, Alberta, Canada; and Hollywood, California. He was educated at Western Canada College, Calgary, Harvard Military School, Los Angeles, California; Hollywood High School, and Leland Stanford University, Class of 1919.

 

A student of Leland Stanford, Jr., University, he enlisted toward the end of his sophomore year, in the American Field Service (June 9, 1917), and with the second Stanford Unit landed at Bordeaux on June 28, 1917. From July to October he was with Section ten in the Balkans, and under the particularly trying conditions of the eastern front he received his initiation into active warfare. The summer of 1917 was spent carrying wounded over the difficult passes and rough roads of the Albanian mountains and in September the Section took part in the successful Albanian offensive.

 

Returning to Paris on November 18, 1917, he resigned from the Field Service, then being taken over by the American Army, and on December 5th enlisted in aviation. He was trained at Clermont-Ferrand in various schools in southern France, received his commission (June 1, 1918), and was attached to the 11th Aero Bombing Squadron. It was while attending the bombing school at Clermont-Ferrand that he first met Lieutenant Shidler, later his pilot and friend, who has written of him:

 

“It was not hard after arriving at this field to pick out the most efficient bombers. All records were accessible and Lieutenant Sayre’s was easily among the best. His strong personal character, his clean mode of living, and the high code he set as a standard to live by, make him a prominent figure among the officers at that place, and his good sense of humor made companionship with him most agreeable. He was fond of outdoor exercise and I shall never forget the long walks through the vineyards of southern France and the swimming in the warm rivers while he and I were together. While visiting the cities and resorts he found his pleasure rather in the ancient architecture and the beautiful drives than in the bright lights of the town. His constant desire to learn and his devotion to duty were such that he would often sit under the most adverse circumstances and finish a map of some particular objective, when it was a common habit to let such things slip by as easily as possible and let the responsibility rest upon the one in command.”

 

As a member of the 11th Aero Bombing Squad, Lieutenant Sayre took part in the Battle of Saint-Mihiel early in September, 1918, and on the morning of September 14th was sent out with his pilot, Lieutenant Shidler, in company with a formation of several planes, to bomb certain objectives near the city of Conflans. The mission accomplished, they were attacked by a superior number of German planes and in the ensuing combat Lieutenant Sayre was killed, although he kept his guns going until life left his body. His pilot, who was severely wounded, was able to land the plane at Rezonville in the German lines, where he was taken prisoner. It was here that Lieutenant Sayre was first buried, but his body was later removed to the American Cemetery at Thiaucourt, Meurthe-et-Moselle, ultimately to be buried in Hollywood, California.

 

He met death as bravely and squarely as he had faced life, with no thought but for the cause stake and no desire but to serve this cause with the best which he had, even to the final sacrifice.

 

 

 

Harold Sayre’s grave is located in Section 8 not far from the grave of Janet Gayner and near the pond. For a landmark, there is a six-foot flag pole erected on his grave.

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Death of the Innocent The Murder of Frank Raymond

Sunday, January 22nd, 2012

 HOLLYWOOD HISTORY

 

Frank Raymond, Jr. circa 1904

 

 

By Allan R. Ellenberger

 

The dark side of Hollywood existed long before the film industry arrived in town.

 

When Frank Kellogg Raymond made Hollywood his family’s home in 1901, many in town at once thought that his wife Kate was a bit odd. Frank worked in the government print shop in Washington D.C. and would spend one weekend a month with his family in Hollywood. Frank chose a neat little plot of land on the corner of Selma and Las Palmas and hired a contractor to build his family a home. Kate, however, would get involved and submit plans and specifications to several contractors. She promised to pay each of them, but failed to carry out her promises. Legal action was considered, but the idea was discouraged by Pastor Newell of the Presbyterian Church, who made it clear that the woman was mentally erratic and could hardly be held responsible for her actions.

 

Fourteen-year-old Frank Raymond attended the local Fremont grammar school in Miss Willis’ eighth grade class and was regarded as one of her brightest pupils. His mother did not have many friends in Hollywood. Had it not been for Frank, Jr., who had a large circle of friends and was popular with most everyone in town, she would have lived the life of a recluse.

 

Kate however, was clearly a brilliant and highly educated woman and had a small but significant library in her home. She was also an accomplished artist, having painted several beautiful pictures which decorated her West Selma Street home.

 

However there evidently were problems at home and on occasions she made references to her husband who worked in Washington D.C., and with whom she said she could not live. She told neighbors that she came to California on account of Frank’s health but that the real reason was that she and her husband could not agree. What friends she had stated that she never made any definite charges against him, but, from her strange manner and her continual efforts to confide her troubles to someone, the information was not taken too seriously.

 

Not long after, the Raymond’s separated and Frank returned to Washington D.C. full time and left Kate and Frank Jr. in Hollywood. “We were never able to get along well together,” Raymond later testified. “My wife was always of a high strung nature and always wanted things I could not get for her.”

 

Several times she confided her problems to the wife of Dr. H.A. Newell, pastor of the Presbyterian Church where Frank attended Sunday school. She said they had little to live on and her husband failed to send enough money to support her in comfort. On occasions she often talked of suicide which horrified Mrs. Newell, who tried to get her to look upon the pleasant side of life. Kate’s Hollywood neighbors believed that she was deranged and referred to her as “that crazy woman.”

 

In early 1906, Kate and Frank Jr. visited Washington D.C. where she attempted reconciliation with her husband, which was unsuccessful. Upon her return to Hollywood she appeared to be more dejected and Frank also reflected his mothers’ sorrows and illusions.

 

After returning from the east she volunteered at a rummage sale for the Presbyterian Church where she said she worked hard and sold many items but didn’t take a receipt. Several days later it was whispered at the Ladies Aid society meeting that she had appropriated them. Some used the term kleptomania in connection with her name and others were less kind. The items were valued at less than a dollar.

 

She evidently proved her innocence and wanted a letter of vindication but the pastor said that she was not a member and such a letter could not be given. It was also stated that it would be an admission that the church was wrong and so Kate may sue them for libel. She appealed to the minister, who she said “shut the door of his home” in her face and would have nothing to do with her even though she begged him to give her a fair hearing.

 

Kate brooded over this for days. “I had tried so hard and it was an awful shock to me,” she later said. “Every time I looked at my boy his innocent little soul seemed to appeal to me and tell me that the lad’s good intentions would be misunderstood and that he would fare no better than myself among a world of criminals.”

 

She began to believe that Frank would be better off if she sent him to “his Maker.” She waited and finally the shame of what the women in the church had said about her worked on her conscience and she decided her son should be spared from the consequences of any sin she may have committed.

 

Within a few days Kate attempted to buy chloroform from the local pharmacy, saying she intended to clean some clothes. The druggist argued with her about the amount she needed and offered to give her a small medicine bottle full instead.

 

Word quickly spread that Kate was trying to purchase chloroform and a well-known Hollywood resident learned of it and telephoned the drug store and warned the druggist to not sell it to her. When she heard this Kate fainted and fell to the floor. In her disorientation she said:

 

“I want to take myself and my son out of this wicked world, where he will be away from the temptation to swear and steal and cheat as the other boys do. I want him to leave here as pure as he came into the world.”

 

Because of this, Frank was summoned from Washington because Kate was about to be examined for insanity, but when she promised to accompany her husband back to Washington, no action was taken. At the last moment she refused to return east with him.

 

 

Because the numbering of the streets were changed in Hollywood around 1910, the exact location of the Raymond house is not known, but it was near the intersection of Selma and Las Palmas Avenue (above). The address at the time was 450 West Selma Avenue.  

 

 

On Tuesday, April 10, 1906, Kate and Frank Jr. worked around the grounds of the house. Kate told the gardener, Mr. Cranblit, that the next day she would leave him a letter on the doorstep instructing him what was to be done, explaining that she might sleep a little later than usual and did not wish to be awakened.

 

That evening she wrote two notes. One was addressed to her mother, Martha Cooper who lived in San Diego, and the other to Mrs. Cranbilt, the gardener’s wife.

 

“My Dear Mother: To you I leave all in this house – what you care to give to Mrs. Cranblit. She lived in a little house in the rear, and has a warm, kind heart. This shock will nearly kill you, too, and our separation will not be for long.

 

“In this better world we will come to understand things better than we did here, where all the mists will be cleared away. My boy will be safe from other temptations of this wicked world. I ask the forgiveness of any I have ever wronged intentionally. The world is against me and this is the only cowardly act I’ve ever been guilty of doing.”

 

In her note to Mrs. Cranblit she wrote:

 

“The God I’ve tried to serve so faithfully has forsaken me, and I cannot leave my boy to this wicked part of the world where he will be considered weak-minded if he does not lie and cheat.”

 

That evening, Kate waited until Frank went to sleep and then entered his room. He was lying on the lounge with his face turned towards her.  She packed the door and windows with towels then locked the door and turned on the gas. Kate kneeled on the floor beside her son.

 

The next morning, as Cranblit approached the house he detected the odor of gas. He rushed to the neighbors residences and, with two other men, broke down the rear door. The men were almost knocked to the ground by the amount of gas that rushed out of the kitchen. It was several minutes before they could enter.

 

Once Cranblit could finally enter the bedroom, he found Frank lying dead on the lounge and Kate, moving slightly, was half way under one of the beds.  Cranblit dragged Kate through the kitchen to the screen porch. Dr. Edwin O. Palmer, Hollywood’s city health officer was notified and a nurse was brought in to attend to Kate until she regained consciousness.

 

“Where is my boy—my little Frank,” Kate asked.

 

Neighbors who had gathered at the house did not speak of her son’s death, instead telling her that he had been taken away. They assured her that her mother was on her way to Los Angeles.

 

“I do not wish to see my mother,” Kate screamed. “Don’t allow her to come into this house. I never wish to see her again in my life. My only regret is that I did not kill myself.”

 

When her mother did arrive later that night, she was met by her son, John Cooper, who took her directly to Hollywood. Cooper put the blame directly on his sister. Her inability to live with her husband was on account of her actions and treatment of him, and was due to her mental condition. Mrs. Cooper claimed her daughter was a victim of acute melancholia and was given to illusions.

 

When Frank Raymond was wired of what had happened, the initial report was that both his wife and son were dead. “Mrs. Raymond killed herself and little boy last night. Wire instructions or come on,” read the telegram. Raymond left Washington that night by train for Hollywood.

 

When the news of Frank’s death became known, it affected his classmates at Fremont grammar school. Out of respect for the dead boy the flag was lowered to half-mast and was kept there until Frank’s burial.

 

In the meantime, Kate was taken to the county hospital and placed under arrest. When she was informed that her son was dead, she rejoiced and repeated: “I am glad he is dead. It is better for him. He is beyond wickedness now. I will kill myself when I have an opportunity. It will come, I am certain. They cannot prevent my killing myself. It is best for all concerned.” Over the next week Kate was closely watched, day and night, after trying to commit suicide by strangling herself in her bedclothes.

 

On April 15, 1906 Frank Raymond arrived in Los Angeles. He visited the morgue to view his son’s body, but said little to the attendants at Pierce Brothers morgue. He spoke to Coroner Trout and although he had not lived with his wife for several years he refrained from saying anything bitter about her. However he inferred that he believed his wife was insane for some time, and that criminal action should not be taken against her for the murder of his son.

 

The citizens of Hollywood were divided over her guilt. Nearly everyone who knew her believed that she was insane but there were others who said she should be charged with murder and be punished for her act. A former neighbor, J.G. Gunsolus and his wife believed that she was not insane when she turned on the gas and killed her son. Kate had often spoken to Mrs. Gunsolus about her family problems and had threatened to take her own life on several occasions.

 

The following day the inquest was held at the Pierce Brothers where Frank Raymond was asked only a few questions. Kate’s mother told the jury that her daughter had been mentally unsound since the birth of her son.  Other witnesses described the manner in which young Frank was put to death and told how they found the body lying on a little cot, while his unconscious mother was in a kneeling position by the bedside. Other Hollywood residents described Kate as erratic, peculiar and probably insane.

 

The coroner’s jury took two minutes to find Kate Raymond insane.  Frank Raymond sat close to his son’s body as the verdict was read. “We find that Frank Raymond came to his death through asphyxiation during the temporary insanity of his mother, Mrs. Kate B. Raymond,” the verdict read. It was suggested that Kate would, in all probability, be examined before an insanity commission in the superior court and sent to an asylum.

 

That afternoon, the funeral of Frank Raymond Jr. was held in the chapel of Hollywood Cemetery.

 

 

The grave of fourteen-year-old murder victim, Frank Raymond at Hollywood Forever Cemetery.

 

 

Bottom center of photo is the tombstone of Frank Raymond. The grave is located in the far north eastern section of Hollywood Forever Cemetery.

 

 

 Afterward, Raymond paid a visit to his wife at the county hospital.

 

The following day Kate appeared before the board of insanity commissioners. When her case was called, she went forward, slowly unwrapped the white veil from her face and smiled at the men who were about to try her. “I killed little Frank you know,” she told the shocked men. “I just killed him that was all. Now that I have sent his sweet, sinless soul to the protecting arms of the Maker, I am willing, only too willing, that my soul should be lost forever. I gave up my hope of the hereafter in order that he might be spared, and do you think I am unhappy that it is so?”

 

Kate was committed to the Southern California State Hospital in San Bernardino, California. Frank Raymond divorced his wife and later remarried. He eventually became the private secretary for Congressman Thomas F. Ryan of Topeka, Kansas. Raymond died in January 1914 and was buried at the Congressional Cemetery in Washington D.C.

 

Kate was released from the asylum in early 1910 and took a ship to San Francisco and found a job as a waitress in a restaurant on Sixth Street. On the boat she met a man and got involved in a scheme with him, posing as persons of wealth. They checked into the St. Francis Hotel and cashed a bad check for $75. Her accomplice was arrested.  

 

For two years Kate roamed around California. Finally on June 8, 1912, the body of Kate Raymond was found on a Santa Barbara beach. While she was washed up by the waves, there was no water found in her lungs. It was believed that she first took poison. The two paragraph newspaper report told of her earlier attempts at suicide and the death of her son. The headline read: “Finally Succeeds.”

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